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Lots of people seem to have trouble with the Causes of the Spanish Civil War, so as revision for my exam tomorrow I'm gonna make it simple through a guide, containing all of the essay factors!

To start, the political spectrum:

Right Wing - Nationalists. Includes Army, Church, landowners, monarchists, CEDA, and Franco's Fascist Party, Falange.

Left Wing - Republicans. Includes socialists, communists, anarchists, trade unionists and moderate liberals.

The Long-Term causes include Socio-Economic, Army and Church, and political system/factors. These led to a desire for change, which manifests itself in the short term cause of the Second Republic 1931-1936. This led to polarisation between left and right, and the trigger factors of Popular Front, Assassination of Sotelo and the failed military coup. Now for some more detail:

LONG TERM FACTORS (1800s - 1930)

Socio-Economic

  • Spain is poor and weak, economically backwards, mainly agricultural and uneducated.
  • Rural unrest due to poor conditions: 2/3 of Spain's population were poor peasants, and those working on large estates known as 'latifundios' in the South were exploited by landowners, accepting near starvation level wages as disruption = fired.
  • Towns were not much better - child labour and low wages present, however it was easier to join political groups that the ruling classes feared.
  • Economy improved during World War One, but this was short lived and did not benefit the poor.
  • Socio-Economics can be assessed as greatly important, due to consequential divisions - for example, Separatism in which the richer areas of Catalonia and Basque desired autonomy/independence and had their own language/culture. Also, it led to a desire for change due to starvation and fear of the elite.

Army and Church

  • Army stood as a form of repression via tortures and shootings, and was hated for the way it brutally put down strikes with help from the armed police (Civil Guard)
  • Church was unpopular and limited education: as late as the 1900s, 64% of the population was illiterate. Church was also responsible for propaganda against liberalism, communism and democracy, and worked with the Army to utilise the feared 'INQUISITION' in order to produce blind obedience. The Church justified the Army's violence, and both were totally opposed to Basque and Catalonian separatism - they were both a Nationalistic force.
  • Can be accredited a crucial role in outbreak of SCW due to the fear, anger and divisions they caused, especially amongst the lower class. Again, the emphasis is that it led to a desire for change.

Political

Political system and monarchy

  • Constitutional monarchy under King Alfonso XIII.
  • Elections/laws/parliament formed to benefit ruling class, not poor.
  • Despite there being universal male suffrage since 1887, politics were surprisingly right wing.
  • Elections and politics were rigged to remain this way, by brutal thuggish 'caciques' in favour of Liberals and Conservatives.
  • Added to political divisions, but not as high impact as socio-economic tensions and fear of Army/Church in my view.

Left/Right division

  • Two major left wing parties: anarchists and socialists. They did not get along and refused to cooperate, with socialists feeling they were respectful of the law and that reasoned discussion would one day resolve Spanish issues. The anarchists thought that the socialists supported repression, and resented them for not being willing to fight for worker rights.
  • Anarchists had a trade union called the CNT and Socialist trade union was called the UGT.
  • Both of these parties were opposed to/ hostilities with the right wing.
  • Significant, but can be called a catalyst showing clear opposed sides instead of a fundamental cause.

Dictatorship of Miguel Primo 1923-1930

  • Due to defeats and humiliation in Morocco, King Alfonso allowed a military dictatorship under General Miguel Primo de Rivera as of 1923, severely undermining the monarchy in the process.
  • Primo split the left wing by allowing the socialist UGT trade union, but driving underground and banning the Anarchists and their CNT trade union.
  • He created mass opposition against him by failing to reform the tax system/economy, did not give peasants the land reform they wanted, and withdrew Catalonian rights.
  • He is a good cause of war, as his failures caused problems to fester, and united left opposition saw him forced out of office in 1930, with subsequent votes calling overwhelmingly for the abdication of King Alfonso and a new Republic.

SHORT TERM FACTOR - THE SECOND REPUBLIC 1931-1936.

Left Republic: April 1931 - November 1933

  • Left took office first: the Republicans, under a man named Azana.
  • They widely reformed: started secular education/abolished support of Church ; Reduced army size/number of officers ; allowed autonomy for Catalonia and land reforms for peasants.
  • The result; however, was disappointing. Land reforms were blocked by the landowners, and were ineffective, and strikes were put down. Reforms were 'too much' for the right, and 'too little' for the left.
  • Led to an increase in right wing opposition. A new right-wing group, known as CEDA (mass catholic party), formed under a man named Gil Robles to counter the Left.
  • Azana's Republican government crumbled in September 1933, and following elections were won by the right.

Right Republic: November 1933 - February 1936

  • New Radical CEDA government reversed the reforms of the Left Republic in what was called the ''two black years''
  • Violent repression against the left: an example is how Francisco Franco's Army of Africa crushed an Anarchist uprising in the Asturias coalfield in October 1934.
  • Due to a financial scandal, the Right Republic collapsed in February 1936.

On the whole, the Second Republic an important cause, as much polarisation and tension can be attributed to it.

TRIGGER FACTORS IN 1936

Popular Front - A popular front (basically the left wing parties united) took charge following the collapse of the Right Republic, furthering polarisation as Franco responded by forming the fascist 'Falange' party (inspired by Hitler) which planned a military coup/takeover.

Assassination - Although plans were already underway for a coup, these were accelerated when a leading right wing monarchist named Jose Calvo Sotelo was assassinated by a socialist bodyguard in July 1936.

Failed military coup - this was attempted under the leadership of Franco in July 1936, but it failed. This action of the army was to start the Civil War to conquer Spain, fought bitterly until 1939 between the Republicans and the Nationalists under Franco, resulting in Nationalist victory and Franco's fascist regime in Spain from 1939~1975

Hope this helps! (and comes up in tomorrow's Paper 2....)

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This is good, I have this as well if it's any help to anyone:

Introduction:

· Spanish civil war broke out 1936

· Cause was mainly deep-seated political divisions with Spanish society, although the failed reforms of the later republic government further polarised the country.

· ‘Trigger’ was assassination of José Soleto which catalysed and hastened preparations for a military coup by right-wing elements of the army in Morocco.

Long-term causes

Economic and social problems 1930-31

· Rural poverty:

o Extreme polarization of wealth in rural areas between landlords and landless labourers.

o Particularly so in Southern Spain: agricultural system consisted of large estates, ‘latifundia’, owned by a few wealthy landlords, worked by labourers by day. System kept labourer poor:

§ Hiring of labour by day gave no financial security, unemployment common

§ Work was highly seasonal, depending on crop

§ Wages were low

o Left-wing unions appealed to labourers – Union General de Trabajadores (UGT) and anarcho-syndicalist Confederacion de Nacional de Trabajo (CNT).

o Attempts to improve conditions through strikes were unsuccessful.

o Analysis:

§ Agricultural issues had serious impact on national politics.

§ Agricultural employment constituted 45.5% of workforce by 1930.

§ Growth in rural unrest presented problem for central government; solutions to agrarian problems frequently caused serious divisions between left- and right-wing politicians. This polarised politics and laid the foundations for a future conflict.

· Urban poverty:

o Percentage of workforce in industry increased in early twentieth century, 21.9% 1923 to 25.6% 1930.

o Urban centres grew as consequence, over a million people migrating to cities.

o Spain’s main industrial areas:

§ Basque country for iron and steel

§ Asturias for coal mining

§ Catalonia for textile industries

o Industrial workers housed in inner-city slums; rents high, living conditions poor.

o No social legislation = no minimum wage, no max working hours, no protection from dangerous working conditions.

o Analysis:

§ Concentration of dissatisfied workers in cities led to growth of trade unions and strikes.

§ For privileged and élites, increase in unrest frequently seen as evidence for growing threat of social revolution following successful Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.

§ Urban issues, like agrarian issues, therefore contributed to political polarization in Spain. This created deep-seated divisions, fears and suspicions, lay the foundations for a future conflict between opposing groups and ideals.

Political instability

· Separatism in Spain 1930-31

o Spain was unified country but strong tradition of separatism in Basque country and Catalonia.

o Both regions sought significant degree of political autonomy.

o Separatism was centuries old, but popularity increased with economic importance of Catalonia and Basque country in 20th century.

o Separatists argued the significant economic contributions made by their regions were not sufficiently valued by the central government.

o Separatist parties like Lliga Regionalista grew in popularity.

o Analysis:

§ Separatist agenda proved to be another divisive force in Spanish politics with leftist groups prepared to concede some degree of autonomy and rightists determined to preserve unity of Spain. Separatism further polarized politics within Spain and created great divisions between opposing groups. Conflict seemed likely by separatists in order to achieve autonomy.

· Collapse of monarchy

o Despite operation of universal male suffrage, system was not really democratic.

o System was unpopular with ordinary people: failed to deliver reforms to improve their lives.

o Political right alarmed at protests and prospect of left-wing government so turned to General Primo de Rivera.

o However, Rivera unable to heal deep divisions in Spanish society despite reforms introduced – in fact, reforms proved divisive: too much for right and too little left.

o Reforms fell well short of what was necessary to resolve socioeconomic problems but also costly à alienated conservative élites and reformers who resented increased financial burden.

o Rivera became increasingly unpopular and stepped down in 1930.

o This allowed an election to take place, resulting in a Spanish republic.

o Analysis:

§ Led to civil war because it led to the introduction of republic governments which later failed to deliver reforms that solved Spain’s problems.

Short-term causes

Left-wing coalition government 1931-33:

· First major election resulted in a left-wing coalition government.

· Passed a series of reforms that aimed to address problems of rural inequality, unemployment and exploitation of labour.

o Agrarian reforms: reduce working hours and increase employment.

o Anti-clerical reforms: reduce Church’s power and monopoly.

o Military reforms: reduce size and closure of military academy in Zaragoza.

o Urban workers reforms: reduce working hours and increase employment.

o Separatist reforms: Catalonia given limited autonomy.

· BUT, reforms were limited and fell short of solving the problems.

o Agrarian reform law in its first year only succeeded in resettling 10% of 60,000 it aimed to help.

o Law of obligatory cultivation frequently ignored by landlords and unemployment still high.

o Catalonia granted very limited autonomy and no provision made for Basque country.

· Reforms generated criticism from both left and right à coalition voted out in November 1933 elections.

o Loss of support by extreme left (reforms did not go far enough).

o Division within coalition itself (over pace and extremity of reforms and anti-clerical laws).

o Labourer and workers dissatisfied with effects of reform programme.

o Right feared that reforms were steps towards socialist reform – could lead to communism.

§ Growth of right opposition came in form of CEDA, which grew rapidly in popularity.

o Military also against reforms – fearful of a purge of the army.

Right-wing republican government 1933-36:

· Period saw reversal of much of reforms of previous republic.

· Left-wing parties alarmed by reforms by government à increased strikes.

o Asturias Uprising 1934: serious uprising against government. Reaction of government was brutal, over 1000 killed, Catalan autonomy suspended.

· Breakdown in relations between Radical party and CEDA led to collapse of parliament and government à elections were called.

Popular Front government 1936:

· Election resulted in another left-wing republic.

· Popular Front was broad coalition of various left-wing groups.

· Resumed left-wing reformist agenda:

o Restoration of Catalan autonomy.

o Resumption of agrarian and military reforms.

· Right became frustrated and extremist elements began to advocate more militant approach to gaining power.

· Popular Front faced opposition from extreme left.

· Worsening conditions due to poor harvest and unemployment led to rise in militancy of the left.

· Government’s ability to provide stable rule weakened by internal divisions.

· Analysis:

o Civil war came about, partly, as a result of failure to deliver reforms by three republic government from 1931-36. Living conditions, economic conditions did not improve and caused dissatisfaction amongst the general populous and the more extreme elements of both the left and right. The polarisation of politics and the divisions within Spanish society coupled with these failed reforms helped bring around ideas of revolution from both extreme left and right, which in turn brought around the civil war.

Military rising July 1936:

· Both extreme left and extreme right had spoken about revolution.

· The murder of José Sotelo hastened preparations for a military coup 1936 led by generals Sanjuro and Mola + Foreign Legion.

· Revolt began with troops in Morocco and spread to military units throughout Spain.

· This action met with armed resistance from left-wing unions, particularly in rural south and Barcelona and Madrid.

· As a result, army was only able to take control of parts of Spain, bringing the country into a civil war.

Conclusion:

· Civil war came about, in the end, from the deep-seated divisions within Spanish society.

· These early divisions helped polarise politics and the country so that, when the republic governments were formed, it was almost impossible to please both the moderate left and right, let alone the extreme elements.

· This in turn led to revolutionary ideas spreading, before the assassination of José Sotelo sparked plans by the military in Morocco to stage a coup.

· Therefore, the long-term economic and social problems of Spain laid the foundations for a future, and arguably inevitable, conflict.

I also have essay plans for nearly everything else if there's something someone desperately wants/needs.

Edited by LJBurke
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@LJBurke ; if you have any on the rise/rule of Mao or Hitler, I would love to see them. (Lenin too in fact) Thanks!

I never bothered to study Lenin as I'm SL so don't have essay plans, sorry! I have some for Hitler, my Mao ones seem to be missing. but here you go:

RTP of Hitler

Problems of Weimar Republic:

· ToV shock to Germans (thought they would be victorious).

o Nationalists claimed German army had been ‘stabbed in the back’ à resentment against the ‘November Criminals’

· ToV caused anger:

o Lost 13% of terrirtory + all colonies

o Armed forces severely restricted: country could not defend itself

o Rhineland demilitarised + Polish corridor created

o War guilt + reparations = humiliation

o No self-determination for outside Germans

o à People resented the government for giving in and turned to stronger figures that could make Germany a great nation again (rise of Hitler).

o Geary: ToV had ‘a major role in Weimar’s collapse’

· Constitution contained weaknesses:

o Proportional representation: 15 coalition governments resulted in long-term political instability; people looked for a strong, authoritarian figure. Also enabled smaller and extremist parties to gain representation.

o Frequent government changes undermined support for democratic government.

o Peter Gay: Weimar was “born in defeat, lived in turmoil and died in disaster’

o Weaknesses reinforced picture of Weimar Republic as struggling parliamentary democracy.

· Constitution gave considerable power to President:

o He appointed Chancellor that he wanted

o Power to rule by decree (article 48)

· Weaknesses left constitution open to continual threats:

o Spartacus League 1919

o Kapp Putsch 1920

o ‘White Terror’ 1920-22

o Beer Hall Putsch 1923

Economic conditions:

· War and ToV undermined German economy:

o Soldiers couldn’t find work

o Industrial land lost

o Reparations cost £6,600 millions

§ Taylor: very damaging

§ Fisher: not so damaging, not decisive factor

· Occupation of Ruhr 1921:

o Passive resistance

o Hyperinflation – loss of savings caused lasting damage

o Dawes Plan placed economy in dependent position at mercy of US

· Wall Street Crash 1929: USA recalled loans – Germany economy in crisis

o Created desperate conditions for rise of Nazis.

o Carr: inconceivable that Hitler could rise without the crash

o During depression, people were ‘psychologically vulnerable’ (Bullock) which led them to turn towards the Nazis.

Hitler’s personal qualities:

· Could sense popular mood, offered what people wanted, policies with popular appeal (eradication of ToV, ‘Volksgemeinshaft’, make Germany strong again)

· Promise to solve economic problems – offered jobs in a time of mass unemployment

· Offered strong, incorrupt leadership in a turbulent political era

· An orator, could cultivate his audience

o Feuchtwanger: this was a ‘significant historical factor’

· Seen as a saviour and war hero

· Goebbels used effective propaganda – radio, posters, mass rallies, speeches, uniforms

o Layton: propaganda was a key role

o Carr: ‘A Hitler speech was superb theatre’

· Determined, tireless, cunning – refused to take any post except Chancellor

· Willingness to use force: SA and SS

· Mein Kampf showed political acumen

Mistakes of others:

· Disunity of SPD and KPD (Stalin ordered not to unite)

· Communists’ insistence on class war limited their appeal while Hitler did not assign himself to any class

· Previous Chancellors could not gather enough support from German people or Reichstag (Muller, Bruning, von Papen, Schleicher)

· Papen convinced Hindenburg to give Hitler chancellorship – underestimated Hitler

o Gorden: ‘The Hindenburg clique thought they could install him in power and control him’

Conclusion:

· Variety of reasons why Hitler was able to rise to power.

· Political problems of Weimar encouraged German people to look for strong, authoritarian figure. BUT there were other strong figures (communists).

· Economic conditions encouraged people to turn to other political groups such as Nazis. BUT this doesn't account for why they didn’t turn towards communists. Plus, the depression hit the whole world, yet people in other nations did not turn towards a fascist dictator.

· Hitler’s personal qualities allowed him to exploit the vulnerability of others; he was cunning, intelligent and a great orator.

· The mistakes of others undermined support for them.

· SO, Hitler was able to rise to power because he seized the right opportunities presented to him through the political and economic conditions of the time. His personal qualities allowed him to garner support in a way that other political figures and parties couldn’t – the mistakes of the latter giving Hitler an advantage.

· HOWEVER, Hitler could not have risen to power through any one of the areas alone – a synthesis of all areas is required to explain his rise.

Hitler's consolidation of power

Introduction:

· Various factors: government legislation, propaganda/cult of personality and repression/terror/persecution

· Legislation = elimination of political opposition, allowed political establishment of single-party state. BUT, did not repress violent opposition.

· Propaganda = efficient and successful in portraying Hitler as saviour of country – took advantage of Germans vulnerability after WW1

· Repression = eliminated violent opposition so that political single-party state could be further developed.

Government legislation:

· March-July 1933 all other political parties forced to disband

o KPD banned under presidential decree of February after Reichstag fire

§ ‘Protection of the Nation and the State’: suspended civil rights; gave secret police more power; gave Hitler legal right to suppress opposition

o Less extreme socialists imprisoned

o DNVP lost role after coalition with Nazis and disbanded

o Catholic Centre Party disbanded after concordat with Pope

o Law Against the Establishment of Parties 14 July 1933: criminal offence to organise any party outside NSDAP à only Nazis were able to stand in Nov 1933 elections – took all seats

· State was centralised

o Localities: Nazis infiltrated state governments (Landers) – seized public buildings + newspaper offices, state governments forced to resign as unable to control SA violence

· Provincial assemblies of Lander abolished, all areas placed under control of Nazi governors (Reichstatthalter) and subordinated to Reich government in Berlin

o Governors also had positions as local Nazi Gauleiters

· ‘Law for Restoration of the Professional Civil Service’ April 1933:

o Non-Aryans forced to retire

o Jews and other opponents descried as ‘alien elements’, purged from positions in administration, courts, schools and universities

o BUT, not until compulsory membership of Nazis was there a remarkable continuity of personnel

· New academies/’fronts’ controlled professions

o Teachers required to join National Socialist Teachers’ League

o University lecturers required to sign declaration in support of Hitler and join Nazi Lecturer’s Association

· Analysis: situation not as simple as it sounds

o Hitler allowed parallel institutions to develop rather creating undiluted party rule (local governments were retained alongside new Reich governments)

o As such, there was competition within state between different agencies

o Intentionalism (Karl Bracher, Klaus Hildebrand) = Hitler did this in purpose so that he could retain ultimate control

o Structuralism (Martin Broszat, Hans Mommsen) = situation was unintentional and resulted from Hitler’s disinterest and neglect

Propaganda:

· Hitler set up Ministry for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda under Goebbels straight away

o Propaganda in schools, towns and the workplace, and in people’s leisure pursuits

o Controlled press through censorship: Eher Verlag bought private newspapers 1939; German news agency regulated supply of news

o Editors held responsible for their papers – liable to prosecution if they published unapproved material

· Made extensive use of radio

o Reichstag Broadcasting Corporation 1933

o Volksempfanger became standard item

§ Had limited range: individuals could not listen to foreign broadcasts

§ Deliberately sold cheaply: everyone could buy one – ownerships increased from <25% 1932 to >70% 1939

§ Consequently: population could be subject to daily exposure to Nazi views

· Stamps carried Nazi slogans

· Posters bore Nazi quotations + put up in offices and public buildings

· ‘Heil Hitler’ salute became official form of greeting – helped reinforce enthusiasm for leader

· Cinema used as propaganda tool

o Films censored

o ‘degenerate’ acts forbidden

o Light-hearted entertainment had to conform to Nazi ideological principles

· Culture became form of propaganda

o Concert halls bedecked with swastikas

o Constant meetings, rallies, festivals (Hitler’s birthday, anniversary of appointment as Chancellor) and sporting events

· Analysis: not easy to evaluate success

o German people subject to other influences, i.e. repression

o But very ubiquity of propaganda must have played role in strengthening regime

o David Welch: propaganda was more successful in reinforcing than in countering existing attitudes

o Bracher: ‘a legal revolution’

o It was able to do that^, but should also take some credit for ease with which Hitler was able to consolidate rule

Repression:

· Considerable infringement of personal liberty: wide range

o Comparatively mild = censorship

o Through to warnings and job dismissal

o To arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, concentration camp and even execution

· Hindenburg’s February 1933 decree: 300,000 communists rounded up, 30,000 executed

o Decree allowed imprisonment for indefinite period of time

· Police centralised under Himmler as Chief of Police (also head of Gestapo)

· SD, or security police, headed by Reinhard Heydrich

· Reich Main Security Department

· Individual made well aware of consequences of non-conformity

o State employed informants

o ‘block wardens’ created image of power that helped reinforce obedience

· Courts not impartial

o Judges whose political beliefs conflicted with Nazism lost positions

o Lawyers had to be members of Nazi Lawyers Association

o Law did not change, but way it was interpreted did

o Ernst Huber: individual can be judged by law only from point of view of individual’s value for volkish communit

· Concentration camps were brutal places

o Prisoners forced to work long hours on meagre rations

· 1933-1939 = 225,000 convicted of political crimes; 162,000 placed in ‘protective custody’ in prison without trial

· Night of the Long Knives:

o Hitler concerned about SA’s violent and uncontrollable behaviour; Ernst Rohm wanted a second revolution

o Hitler couldn’t upset army (needed their loyalty) so took view SA had served purpose and was expendable

o Rohm and 85 other were killed June 1934 in order to forestall a revolt

o Night helped confirm Hitler’s authority; Reichstag justified Hitler’s actions and effectively made murder acceptable

o Goebbels able to portray Hitler as man who saved country – helped in growing cult of Fuhrer

o Purge left way open for SS to assume dominance in Germany

o Hitler gained support of army – all members swore oath to Hitler

· Kershaw: army really ‘chained herself to Hitler’

· Evans: Hitler’s consolidation of power ‘dependent crucially on mass violence and intimidation for its success… [otherwise] there would have been no one-party state’

Conclusion:

· Culminations of all areas: could not consolidate power without them all

· Legislation = elimination of political opposition, allowed political establishment of single-party state. BUT, did not repress violent opposition.

· Propaganda = efficient and successful in portraying Hitler as saviour of country – took advantage of Germans vulnerability after WW1

· Repression = eliminated violent opposition so that political single-party state could be further developed.

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@LJBurke ; if you have any on the rise/rule of Mao or Hitler, I would love to see them. (Lenin too in fact) Thanks!

I never bothered to study Lenin as I'm SL so don't have essay plans, sorry! I have some for Hitler, my Mao ones seem to be missing. but here you go:

RTP of Hitler

Problems of Weimar Republic:

· ToV shock to Germans (thought they would be victorious).

o Nationalists claimed German army had been ‘stabbed in the back’ à resentment against the ‘November Criminals’

· ToV caused anger:

o Lost 13% of terrirtory + all colonies

o Armed forces severely restricted: country could not defend itself

o Rhineland demilitarised + Polish corridor created

o War guilt + reparations = humiliation

o No self-determination for outside Germans

o à People resented the government for giving in and turned to stronger figures that could make Germany a great nation again (rise of Hitler).

o Geary: ToV had ‘a major role in Weimar’s collapse’

· Constitution contained weaknesses:

o Proportional representation: 15 coalition governments resulted in long-term political instability; people looked for a strong, authoritarian figure. Also enabled smaller and extremist parties to gain representation.

o Frequent government changes undermined support for democratic government.

o Peter Gay: Weimar was “born in defeat, lived in turmoil and died in disaster’

o Weaknesses reinforced picture of Weimar Republic as struggling parliamentary democracy.

· Constitution gave considerable power to President:

o He appointed Chancellor that he wanted

o Power to rule by decree (article 48)

· Weaknesses left constitution open to continual threats:

o Spartacus League 1919

o Kapp Putsch 1920

o ‘White Terror’ 1920-22

o Beer Hall Putsch 1923

Economic conditions:

· War and ToV undermined German economy:

o Soldiers couldn’t find work

o Industrial land lost

o Reparations cost £6,600 millions

§ Taylor: very damaging

§ Fisher: not so damaging, not decisive factor

· Occupation of Ruhr 1921:

o Passive resistance

o Hyperinflation – loss of savings caused lasting damage

o Dawes Plan placed economy in dependent position at mercy of US

· Wall Street Crash 1929: USA recalled loans – Germany economy in crisis

o Created desperate conditions for rise of Nazis.

o Carr: inconceivable that Hitler could rise without the crash

o During depression, people were ‘psychologically vulnerable’ (Bullock) which led them to turn towards the Nazis.

Hitler’s personal qualities:

· Could sense popular mood, offered what people wanted, policies with popular appeal (eradication of ToV, ‘Volksgemeinshaft’, make Germany strong again)

· Promise to solve economic problems – offered jobs in a time of mass unemployment

· Offered strong, incorrupt leadership in a turbulent political era

· An orator, could cultivate his audience

o Feuchtwanger: this was a ‘significant historical factor’

· Seen as a saviour and war hero

· Goebbels used effective propaganda – radio, posters, mass rallies, speeches, uniforms

o Layton: propaganda was a key role

o Carr: ‘A Hitler speech was superb theatre’

· Determined, tireless, cunning – refused to take any post except Chancellor

· Willingness to use force: SA and SS

· Mein Kampf showed political acumen

Mistakes of others:

· Disunity of SPD and KPD (Stalin ordered not to unite)

· Communists’ insistence on class war limited their appeal while Hitler did not assign himself to any class

· Previous Chancellors could not gather enough support from German people or Reichstag (Muller, Bruning, von Papen, Schleicher)

· Papen convinced Hindenburg to give Hitler chancellorship – underestimated Hitler

o Gorden: ‘The Hindenburg clique thought they could install him in power and control him’

Conclusion:

· Variety of reasons why Hitler was able to rise to power.

· Political problems of Weimar encouraged German people to look for strong, authoritarian figure. BUT there were other strong figures (communists).

· Economic conditions encouraged people to turn to other political groups such as Nazis. BUT this doesn't account for why they didn’t turn towards communists. Plus, the depression hit the whole world, yet people in other nations did not turn towards a fascist dictator.

· Hitler’s personal qualities allowed him to exploit the vulnerability of others; he was cunning, intelligent and a great orator.

· The mistakes of others undermined support for them.

· SO, Hitler was able to rise to power because he seized the right opportunities presented to him through the political and economic conditions of the time. His personal qualities allowed him to garner support in a way that other political figures and parties couldn’t – the mistakes of the latter giving Hitler an advantage.

· HOWEVER, Hitler could not have risen to power through any one of the areas alone – a synthesis of all areas is required to explain his rise.

In addition, Germans found the Treaty of Versailles unfair and unnecessarily strict, as they had already removed Wilhelm II (who, after all, decided to wage war in 1914).

EDIT: Forgot to mention the Spanish Civil War... Great, man! I'm sure this will be very helpful for those people who consider writing about the Spanish Civil War tomorrow or in examinations yet to come!

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  • 11 months later...
  • 5 years later...
On 5/7/2013 at 3:42 PM, TykeDragon said:

Lots of people seem to have trouble with the Causes of the Spanish Civil War, so as revision for my exam tomorrow I'm gonna make it simple through a guide, containing all of the essay factors!

To start, the political spectrum:

Right Wing - Nationalists. Includes Army, Church, landowners, monarchists, CEDA, and Franco's Fascist Party, Falange.

Left Wing - Republicans. Includes socialists, communists, anarchists, trade unionists and moderate liberals.

The Long-Term causes include Socio-Economic, Army and Church, and political system/factors. These led to a desire for change, which manifests itself in the short term cause of the Second Republic 1931-1936. This led to polarisation between left and right, and the trigger factors of Popular Front, Assassination of Sotelo and the failed military coup. Now for some more detail:

LONG TERM FACTORS (1800s - 1930)

Socio-Economic

  • Spain is poor and weak, economically backwards, mainly agricultural and uneducated.
  • Rural unrest due to poor conditions: 2/3 of Spain's population were poor peasants, and those working on large estates known as 'latifundios' in the South were exploited by landowners, accepting near starvation level wages as disruption = fired.
  • Towns were not much better - child labour and low wages present, however it was easier to join political groups that the ruling classes feared.
  • Economy improved during World War One, but this was short lived and did not benefit the poor.
  • Socio-Economics can be assessed as greatly important, due to consequential divisions - for example, Separatism in which the richer areas of Catalonia and Basque desired autonomy/independence and had their own language/culture. Also, it led to a desire for change due to starvation and fear of the elite.

Army and Church

  • Army stood as a form of repression via tortures and shootings, and was hated for the way it brutally put down strikes with help from the armed police (Civil Guard)
  • Church was unpopular and limited education: as late as the 1900s, 64% of the population was illiterate. Church was also responsible for propaganda against liberalism, communism and democracy, and worked with the Army to utilise the feared 'INQUISITION' in order to produce blind obedience. The Church justified the Army's violence, and both were totally opposed to Basque and Catalonian separatism - they were both a Nationalistic force.
  • Can be accredited a crucial role in outbreak of SCW due to the fear, anger and divisions they caused, especially amongst the lower class. Again, the emphasis is that it led to a desire for change.

Political

Political system and monarchy

  • Constitutional monarchy under King Alfonso XIII.
  • Elections/laws/parliament formed to benefit ruling class, not poor.
  • Despite there being universal male suffrage since 1887, politics were surprisingly right wing.
  • Elections and politics were rigged to remain this way, by brutal thuggish 'caciques' in favour of Liberals and Conservatives.
  • Added to political divisions, but not as high impact as socio-economic tensions and fear of Army/Church in my view.

Left/Right division

  • Two major left wing parties: anarchists and socialists. They did not get along and refused to cooperate, with socialists feeling they were respectful of the law and that reasoned discussion would one day resolve Spanish issues. The anarchists thought that the socialists supported repression, and resented them for not being willing to fight for worker rights.
  • Anarchists had a trade union called the CNT and Socialist trade union was called the UGT.
  • Both of these parties were opposed to/ hostilities with the right wing.
  • Significant, but can be called a catalyst showing clear opposed sides instead of a fundamental cause.

Dictatorship of Miguel Primo 1923-1930

  • Due to defeats and humiliation in Morocco, King Alfonso allowed a military dictatorship under General Miguel Primo de Rivera as of 1923, severely undermining the monarchy in the process.
  • Primo split the left wing by allowing the socialist UGT trade union, but driving underground and banning the Anarchists and their CNT trade union.
  • He created mass opposition against him by failing to reform the tax system/economy, did not give peasants the land reform they wanted, and withdrew Catalonian rights.
  • He is a good cause of war, as his failures caused problems to fester, and united left opposition saw him forced out of office in 1930, with subsequent votes calling overwhelmingly for the abdication of King Alfonso and a new Republic.

SHORT TERM FACTOR - THE SECOND REPUBLIC 1931-1936.

Left Republic: April 1931 - November 1933

  • Left took office first: the Republicans, under a man named Azana.
  • They widely reformed: started secular education/abolished support of Church ; Reduced army size/number of officers ; allowed autonomy for Catalonia and land reforms for peasants.
  • The result; however, was disappointing. Land reforms were blocked by the landowners, and were ineffective, and strikes were put down. Reforms were 'too much' for the right, and 'too little' for the left.
  • Led to an increase in right wing opposition. A new right-wing group, known as CEDA (mass catholic party), formed under a man named Gil Robles to counter the Left.
  • Azana's Republican government crumbled in September 1933, and following elections were won by the right.

Right Republic: November 1933 - February 1936

  • New Radical CEDA government reversed the reforms of the Left Republic in what was called the ''two black years''
  • Violent repression against the left: an example is how Francisco Franco's Army of Africa crushed an Anarchist uprising in the Asturias coalfield in October 1934.
  • Due to a financial scandal, the Right Republic collapsed in February 1936.

On the whole, the Second Republic an important cause, as much polarisation and tension can be attributed to it.

TRIGGER FACTORS IN 1936

Popular Front - A popular front (basically the left wing parties united) took charge following the collapse of the Right Republic, furthering polarisation as Franco responded by forming the fascist 'Falange' party (inspired by Hitler) which planned a military coup/takeover.

Assassination - Although plans were already underway for a coup, these were accelerated when a leading right wing monarchist named Jose Calvo Sotelo was assassinated by a socialist bodyguard in July 1936.

Failed military coup - this was attempted under the leadership of Franco in July 1936, but it failed. This action of the army was to start the Civil War to conquer Spain, fought bitterly until 1939 between the Republicans and the Nationalists under Franco, resulting in Nationalist victory and Franco's fascist regime in Spain from 1939~1975

Hope this helps! (and comes up in tomorrow's Paper 2....)

thankss

 

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  • 1 year later...
On 5/8/2013 at 4:57 AM, LJBurke said:

This is good, I have this as well if it's any help to anyone:

Hidden Content

I also have essay plans for nearly everything else if there's something someone desperately wants/needs.

Could you please write the eassy plans for the effects of SCW?Thx!!!!

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On 5/8/2013 at 4:57 AM, LJBurke said:

This is good, I have this as well if it's any help to anyone:

Hidden Content

I also have essay plans for nearly everything else if there's something someone desperately wants/needs.

Could you please write plans for the effects of SCW?Thex!!!!

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