# ctrls

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1. ## IA (HL) Math Exploration Help

For the second topic, I would recommend avoiding the zeta function. Since the function is defined as an analytic continuation, you really need to understand and be able to explain the definition in order to investigate it. This is especially the case for showing that the value is undefined for s=1, you need to refer to the definition. You could consider the series on its own though, looking at convergence/divergence (this is covered in the calculus option), determining the value when it converges and how it varies with s, etc. Dealing with infinite sums requires a fair bit of care though, p
2. ## MATH HL EXPLORATION

In general, including a proof of a known result is fine as long as you understand the proof and can explain it in your own words. There isn't a result that's commonly referred to as "Fourier's theorem" though, which particular result are you referring to? If you mean any kind of convergence result (ie: that the infinite sum of trig functions converges to the original function under certain hypotheses) then probably not, since it's a fairly advanced topic and even formulating the theorem precisely requires knowledge of additional topics. You likely won't be expected to prove anything rigorous
3. ## IA (HL) HL Math IA

It sounds very simple to be honest, a derivation of the perimeter and area only takes a couple of lines. While complex numbers might have some use, there's not point in using induction either - at least it seems simpler to attack the general case directly. There are other things regarding complex numbers and geometry that though would probably work, but unfortunately I don't know of any specific topics. A quick google search gave me this page though (scroll down to 'problems' part), which may give you some ideas and things to look into.
4. ## Math IA: Primitive roots?

Once you have found a primitive root , it can be proved that is a primitive root if and only if and are coprime (so they share no common factors). In this case we have so choosing to be an odd integer that is not divisible by 61 will work (note however that there are 480 primitive roots). Here's a proof sketch of why this holds. I'm not sure what kind of background you have with number theory, but you do need some preliminary results like BÃ©zout's identity and Fermat's little theorem to prove this (the explanation in my link does it more generally for any number, but in the case of prime
5. ## Math IA: Primitive roots?

The simplest way is to check every possibility. If we wish to find the primitive root of a prime , then for each we check if is a primitive root of , by computing all of its powers. Note however that there is a slight complication here, which is that we haven't proved that primitive roots actually exist, but it turns out that they do for prime numbers greater than 2. Practically speaking however this isn't very fast and there actually isn't a general known "fast" method to solve this problem. We can however make some improvements, namely when checking if it is a primitive root or not. Thi
6. ## Maths HL IA- Markov Chains

I haven't studied Markov chains at all, so I don't really know what kind of calculations and working you'll have to do. That said, it should be possible to change around the topic a bit to be feasible, since the main issue seems to be having too many variables. In particular, two things come to mind: Firstly, you could alter the game to make it simpler and reduce the number of variables. You don't really loose much for example without having all 40 states, rather this could be reduced to something a lot smaller - you could later consider how larger boards would change your results. Admittedl
7. ## 4 colors theorem ? for Extended essay?

You can use ideas from others yes, you can't be expected to come up with a completely new argument after all. That said, a common mistake with maths EE's is that people will end up writing up a proof that they don't properly understanding, which examiners will notice. If you are using someone else's ideas, make sure that you clearly understand what the person has written and then explain it using your own words. I would still say that the whole proof of the 4-colour theorem really isn't feasible for an EE though. Difficulty aside, there's quite a bit of preliminary results you'll likely need
8. ## 4 colors theorem ? for Extended essay?

The general topic of graph colouring may work, though I'm not sure if the 4-colour theorem in particular. Since the proof is based around reducing it to a finite number of cases and checking the result, it's not really feasible to fit it all in. You could of course look at related things in that field though. I'm just reading off topics from wikipedia, but things like weaker versions of the theorem, special cases, colouring algorithms and other related questions. It also happens to have quite a few applications which you could look into. I don't know anything about combinatorics and graph th
9. ## Books about computer science and mathematics?

Just throwing around another possibility, but how about learning Haskell? "Learn You a Haskell for Great Good" by Miran LipovaÄa is a nice introduction, it's also written in a way that you don't need any prior knowledge. That said, some knowledge about set theory and the definition of a function may be helpful to better appreciate the ideas that are presented. There's also a free online version of the book, along with a few pdf's floating around on the internet (with and without illustrations).
10. ## Studying compsci at IB for compsci uni course?

In general taking Computer Science isn't a requirement for studying it at uni, since not all schools offer it. Most uni courses do indeed start by assuming very little, so it will not be a problem if you don't take it. That said, if you plan on studying it at uni you'll probably be interested in the course material and so forth. It may also give you a taste of what the subject is like, along with not having to take another subject that you aren't as interested in. If had the possibility of taking it when I did the IB, I probably would have. It is worth mentioning however, that computer scien
11. ## Order of elements in a group?

Yes, it is the element itself. More precisely, the order of an element is defined as the smallest positive integer such that , where is the identity element. Hence an element is order 1 if (so if it is the identity).
12. ## Math HL help

I'm also getting that is the only real solution, so the book seems to be wrong. This result is also is intuitively true, since grows faster than its inverse for , hence it should never be that case past that point that the two integrals are equal. I'm not really sure what the book wants you to do either, I don't see the reason to have two equations for in terms of . Here's my solution,
13. ## Math HL Topic 9: Calculus

Hint: Use the squeeze theorem, noting that for every . Recall also that a function is continuous at if Edit: The second question (6) is also correct in that there are no printing errors. For every rational number you can find a irrational arbitrarily close to it, so you essentially get a function that jumps between y=x and y=0 rapidly so it is not continuous. The exception however is at x=0, where you are always "close" to 0.
14. ## What is redundant in a Math EE considering an examiner's expectations?

Well, what else would you have to write about? An EE in Maths is supposed to be technical and a large portion of what you are assessed on is on how well you have understood topic you are investigating. If you are writing about the zeta function and it's relation to primes, then you should explain how they are related. To be honest, I don't think this is a good topic. I did a bit of googling about the topic, but it seems like you really need a solid understanding of topics like complex analysis to really understand the link, which I don't think is feasible at this stage. You would likely be
15. ## Fur Maths Theory of Functions

I'm guessing you mean, Simplification doesn't really work here, since you really can't simplify this much further. In general it's a first step to clear up an expression, but that alone won't really give any answers. Past that there's no real algorithmic way to solve these problems, other than to determine the nature of the function and work from there. To find the domain, consider each term separately. The function ex is well defined for all values of x, so that's fine. The fractional term will be undefined if the denominator equals 0, but this doesn't occur for any real value of x in th
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